**
POLS 6482 ADVANCED MULTIVARIATE STATISTICS
Second Assignment
Due 17 September 2001**

**
As we discussed in class, turn in all of your output neatly formatted in WORD! Any
command in STATA or EVIEWS that produces output -- regression tables, histograms,
correlation matrices, etc. -- must be neatly pasted into your homework
answer!**

- The aim of this problem is to investigate some simple relationships
between party identification and a few social-economic characteristics. The
data come from the 1968 and 1996 NES presidential election surveys. The
variables are:

The data are in two text files:**Party Identification: 0=strong democrat 1=weak democrat 2=lean democrat 3=independent 4=lean republican 5=weak republican 6=strong republican Family Income Quintile: 1 is the lowest quintile, 5 is the highest Race: 0 = White 1 = Black Sex: 0 = Male 1 = Female South: 0 = North 1 = South Education: 1 = High School or less 2 = Some College 3 = College degree Age: In Years**

1968 Data

1996 Data

In order to do the assignment you need to download these two files one at a time and load them into**EVIEWS**. The first step is to download the files and place them on a disk (a floppy is fine). Now start**EVIEWS**and type:

**CREATE**

You will get the "Workfile Range" pop-up window. Select the "undated or irregular" option. The 1968 data set has 1585 observations and the 1996 data set has 1547 observations. If you are working with the 1968 data set type "1585" in the "End observation" window and click "OK". You will now see the pop-up window "Workfile: UNTITLED". Now you need to read the data into**EVIEWS**. Type:

**READ(o)**

[Note that the argument in READ() is "o" (oh),*not*"0" (zero)!] The standard windows file open pop-up window now appears and simply type in the path to OLS68.TXT/OLS96.TXT. You will now get the "ASCII Text Import" pop-up window in**EVIEWS**. The cursor will be positioned in the field "Names for series or Number of series if names in file". Type in the following for the variable names:

**party income race sex south education age**

and click "OK". You do not need to put commas between the names of the variables. Also, you need to enter the variable names*in the same order as their corresponding columns in the data matrix*!

You will now see the**EVIEWS**"Workfile: UNTITLED" window with all the variable names. You should now save the workfile as NES68.WF1/NES96.WF1.

After you have the first workfile entered and saved, to get the second data set into**EVIEWS**, simply go to the "File" menu and select "new" and then select "Workfile". You will get another workfile window with the label "Workfile: UNTITLED". Simply enter the command:

**READ(o)**

to get the second data set and go through the same steps described above.

You now should have two workfiles in**EVIEWS**: NES68 and NES96.

We are now going to test the following political theory:

**Party = f(income, race, sex, south, education, age)**

or, expressed in terms of a regression equation:

**y = b**_{0}+ b_{1}x_{1}+ b_{2}x_{2}+ b_{3}x_{3}+ b_{4}x_{4}+ b_{5}x_{5}+ b_{6}x_{6}+ e

where**y = party, x**and_{1}= income, x_{2}= race, x_{3}= sex, x_{4}= south, x_{5}= education,**x**_{6}= age.

- Ignoring the constant term --
**b**--_{0}Why? Justify your answer. For example, the dependent variable,*what should be the signs on the coefficents in the equation*?**party**, ranges from 0 (strong democrat) to 6 (strong republican) and the variable**income**ranges from 1 (lowest income quintile) to 5 (highest income quintile). Hence, a reasonable assumption is that the coefficient on**income**,**b**, should be positive (_{1}**b**)._{1}> 0 - Run the above regression for both elections. The
**EVIEWS**command is:

**LS Party C Income Race Sex South Education Age**

Generally speaking, if the P-Value ("Prob." column in the**EVIEWS**regression table) is greater than .20 we can conclude that,*ceteris paribus*, that the variable is notimportant. Traditionally, for*substantively*, a value of .10 is required.*statistical significance* - Interpret the results in light of your beliefs on the signs of the
coefficients and compare the pattern of the coefficents for 1968 and 1996. What do
you think are the important changes? Do these changes make sense to you?

- Ignoring the constant term --
- The aim of this problem is to learn to transfer a dataset from
**EVIEWS**to**STATA**. To do this, start**STATA**and open up the data editor. It should look like this:

Go back to**EVIEWS**and click the "view" button on the Workfile toolbar and click on the option "Select All (except C-RESID)". You should see the following:

Double click on the highlighted variables and they will come up in a spreadsheet format. (In**EVIEWS**4.0 a gray dialog box will pop up first. Select "open group" and the spreadsheet comes up.) You should see the following:

Highlight the entries of the spreadsheet and place them on the clipboard. You will get the following prompt:

Select the "highest precision" option. Now, go into**STATA**and paste the spreadsheet into the data editor. You will see:

Now insert definitions of the variables into the**STATA**spreadsheet (see first homework). Use the definitions in (1) above (you can use abbreviations, etc.)

- Do the
**d**and**summ**commands for both the 1968 and 1996 datasets and paste the results into your homework answer. - Replicate the regressions in
**STATA**that you ran in**EVIEWS**for both the 1968 and 1996 datasets. In**STATA**, enter the command:

**regress party income race sex south education age**

- Do the
- The aim of this problem is to familarize you with eigenvalues and
eigenvectors of a correlation matrix and some handy features
in
**EVIEWS**.

Bring up**EVIEWS**and open a new workfile. Select the "undated or irregular" option and set the number of observations to 1000. You are going to create a number of variables by drawing randomly from a Normal Distribution. Enter the command:

**GENR X1=NRND**

This creates a 1000 length vector consisting ofdraws from the Normal Distribution with Mean 0 and Variance 1. To check this use the "Histogram and Stats" option under "series statistics" on the "Quick" option of the menu bar (you did this in homework one). You can also type:*random*

**HIST X1**

Now enter the following commands:

**GENR X2=2*(NRND-1)**

**GENR X3=2*NRND-1**

**GENR X4=(1/3)*NRND**

- Verify (use the
**HIST**command) that the means and standard deviations are -2, 2; -1, 2; and 0, 1/3; respectively.

- Compute the correlation matrix with the command:

**COR X1 X2 X3 X4**

What should the values of these correlations be? Why? - Now we are going to compute the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the
correlation matrix. To do this, enter the commands:

**group g1 x1 x2 x3 x4**

**matrix m1=g1**

**sym corrmat=@cor(m1)**

**vector eigenvalue=@eigenvalues(corrmat)**

**matrix eigenvectors=@eigenvectors(corrmat)**

**show eigenvalue**

**show eigenvectors**

The last two commands simply show the results on the screen. Add the eigenvalues --*what do they add up to*?

- Verify (use the