POLS 6386 MEASUREMENT THEORY
Twelveth (and Last!!!) Assignment
Due 6 May 2003 by 12:00 Noon


  1. The aim of the first 3 problems is to analyze the 1996 Presidential election and compare the polarization in Congress with that in the mass public. First, we will use the Aldrich-McKelvey scaling program to analyze the Liberal-Conservative 7-Point Scale from the 1996 election study. Download the program and the 1996 data and "control card" files:

    Aldrich-McKelvey scaling program (Updated From Homework 6!)

    1996 NES Data

    1996 Liberal-Conservative Control Card File

    and place them in the same folder on a WINTEL machine. Read the Aldrich-McKelvey scaling program page to see how to run the program.

    Here are the first few lines of ELEC1996_CLASS_2003.DAT (Note that there are two lines for each respondent!):
    
         1001  3 18  1  1  0  3 38  1  1  3  40  40  35  41  41  50  25  10  35  41  50  50   1  10  55  20  40  40  40 4 2 6 7 2 5
                                             40  40  30  50  35  51  35  70  70  40  35  50  45  70  65  70  30  30  75  49  50  40
         1002  2 14  0  1  0  1 74  0  1  1  85  60  50  85  60  70  60  70   0  70  60  40   0  50  60  15  70  60  70 4 3 6 8 3 7
                                             85  60  50  85  70 100  85 100  85  70  70 998  70 100  70  85  60  70 100  85  70  60
         1003  1  8  0  0  1  1 30  1  5  0  70  60  60  70 997  60  50  70  50  50 997  50 997 997  50 997  85  60  60 0 4 5 6 5 5
                                             85  50  50  60  50  60  40  40  40  50  60  60  60  50  40  85  50  50  50  40  30  50
         1004  1 12  0  0  1  2 21  0  1  1  85  55  50  80 997  70  70  50  50  65  50  60 997 997  50 997  85  55  70 4 2 6 8 2 6
                                             70  40  40  70  70  85  70  85  85  60  70  70  70  70  60  85  70  85  85  85  50  85
         1005  3 21  0  1  0  3 24  1  1  2  30  85  40  50  60  60  40  40  60  60  50  70  30  50  60  50  50  60  50 4 1 6 4 2 6
                                             40  70  30  50  60  50  50  50  50  50  50  40  60  50  40  50  40  40  50  60  50  50
                                         etc etc etc
                                         etc etc etc
    The variables, in order, are:
    
        RESPONDENT ID      = unique 8 digit number
        PARTY ID           = 0 to 6 -- 0 = Strong Democrat
                                       1 = Weak Democrat
                                       2 = Lean Democrat
                                       3 = Independent
                                       4 = Lean Republican
                                       5 = Weak Republican
                                       6 = Strong Republican
        FAMILY INCOME      = 1 to 24   1.    A. None or less than $2,999
                                       2.    B. $3,000-$4,999
                                       3.    C. $5,000-$6,999
                                       4.    D. $7,000-$8,999
                                       5.    E. $9,000-$9,999
                                       6.    F. $10,000-$10,999
                                       7.    G. $11,000-$11,999
                                       8.    H. $12,000-$12,999
                                       9.    J. $13,000-$13,999
                                      10.    K. $14,000-$14.999
                                      11.    M. $15,000-$16,999
                                      12.    N. $17,000-$19,999
                                      13.    P. $20,000-$21,999
                                      14.    Q. $22,000-$24,999
                                      15.    R. $25,000-$29,999
                                      16.    S. $30,000-$34,999
                                      17.    T. $35,000-$39,999
                                      18.    U. $40,000-$44,999
                                      19.    V. $45,000-$49,999
                                      20.    W. $50,000-$59,999
                                      21.    X. $60,000-$74,999
                                      22.    Z. $75,000-89,999
                                      23.    AA. $90,000-$104,999
                                      24.    BB. $105,000 and over
                                
        RACE               = 0 White, 1 Black
        SEX                = 0 Man, 1 Woman
        SOUTH              = 0 North, 1 South
        EDUCATION          = 1 High School or less, 2 Some College, 3 College
        AGE                = In Years
        MARRIED            = 0 Single, 1 Married
        VOTED              = 1 IF VOTED, 5= NOT VOTED, 0=NO POST ELECTION INTERVIEW
        VOTE CHOICE        = 0 NON-VOTER
                           = 1 CLINTON
                           = 2 DOLE
                           = 3 PEROT
                           = 7 OTHER
        FEELING THERMOMETERS   (0 TO 100) -- PRE-ELECTION
    
                           =  CLINTON
                           =  DOLE
                           =  PEROT
                           =  GORE
                           =  KEMP
                           =  HILLARY CLINTON
                           =  BUCHANAN
                           =  JACKSON, JESSE
                           =  GINGRICH
                           =  POWELL, COLIN
                           =  FORBES, STEVE
                           =  GRAMM, PHIL
                           =  FARRAKHAN
                           =  ALEXANDER, LAMAR
                           =  DOLE, ELIZABETH
                           =  ROBERTSON, PAT
                           =  DEMOCRATIC PARTY
                           =  REPUBLICAN PARTY
                           =  PARTIES IN GENERAL
        
        LIBERAL-CONSERVATIVE  SCALE  (1=EXTREMELY LIBERAL, 2=LIBERAL, 3=SLIGHTLY LIBERAL,
                                 4=MODERATE; MIDDLE OF THE ROAD, 5=SLIGHTLY CONSERVATIVE,
                                 6=CONSERVATIVE, 7=EXTREMELY CONSERVATIVE)
    
                           = SELF-PLACEMENT
                           = CLINTON
                           = DOLE
                           = PEROT
                           = DEMOCRATIC PARTY
                           = REPUBLICAN PARTY
    
       ********************* Second Line **************************
        FEELING THERMOMETERS   (0 TO 100) -- POST-ELECTION
    
                           =  CLINTON
                           =  DOLE
                           =  PEROT
                           =  SUPREME COURT
                           =  CONGRESS     
                           =  THE MILITARY  
                           =  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IN WASHINGTON
                           =  BLACKS       
                           =  WHITES         
                           =  CONSERVATIVES
                           =  LIBERALS     
                           =  LABOR UNIONS 
                           =  BIG BUSINESS 
                           =  POOR PEOPLE  
                           =  PEOPLE ON WELFARE
                           =  HISPANICS    
                           =  CHRISTIAN FUNDAMENTALISTS
                           =  WOMEN'S MOVEMENT
                           =  OLDER PEOPLE 
                           =  ENVIRONMENTALISTS
                           =  GAY MEN AND LESBIANS
                           =  CHRISTIAN COALITION
    Run the Aldrich-McKelvey scaling procedure on the 1996 election Liberal-Conservative 7-Point scale. Save the coordinate output files.

    1. Use Epsilon to merge the PARTY ID, FAMILY INCOME, RACE, SEX, and VOTE CHOICE variables from ELEC1996_CLASS_2003.DAT into the coordinate output file. For example, here are the first few lines of the coordinate output file:
      
            LINE #   CASE #  R POS   ALPHA    BETA    SCALED POS    RSQ
               1      1001   4.0   -1.2671    0.2880   -0.1152    0.8158    0.9032
               5      1005   4.0   -1.1807    0.3107    0.0621    0.9317    0.9652
               7      1007   7.0   -1.4578    0.3313    0.8614    0.9779    0.9889
               9      1009   4.0    0.6421   -0.1459    0.0584    0.1502   -0.3875
              10      1010   7.0   -1.1927    0.2982    0.8945    0.9075    0.9526
              11      1011   5.0   -1.1995    0.3157    0.3788    0.7767    0.8813
              12      1012   4.0   -2.6500    0.4907   -0.6870    0.8046    0.8970
                                   etc etc etc
      
      and here are the first few lines of the coordinate output file after the variables are merged in (using a macro that I wrote):
      
               1      1001  3 18  1  1  3  4.0   -1.2671    0.2880   -0.1152    0.8158    0.9032
               5      1005  3 21  0  1  2  4.0   -1.1807    0.3107    0.0621    0.9317    0.9652
               7      1007  6 22  0  0  2  7.0   -1.4578    0.3313    0.8614    0.9779    0.9889
               9      1009  2 20  0  1  1  4.0    0.6421   -0.1459    0.0584    0.1502   -0.3875
              10      1010  5 14  0  0  3  7.0   -1.1927    0.2982    0.8945    0.9075    0.9526
              11      1011  3 19  0  1  3  5.0   -1.1995    0.3157    0.3788    0.7767    0.8813
              12      1012  2  2  0  1  0  4.0   -2.6500    0.4907   -0.6870    0.8046    0.8970
                                      etc etc etc
      Turn in the Epsilon macro you write that inserts the above variables into the coordinate file. In the macro, use a split screen and place the coordinate file in the top screen and ELEC1996_CLASS_2003.DAT in the bottom screen.

    2. Read the above file into R and make smoothed histograms of the scaled positions of the respondents by positive and negative BETA values. Also use arrows to show the locations of President Clinton and Senator Dole (see question 1 of Homework 6 for an example of how to draw arrows). The graph should look something like the following:



      Turn in the R code you used to make your graph. Interpret the graph. What does it tell you about American politics? Be Precise! Limit yourself to no more than two paragraphs.

    3. Make smoothed histograms of the scaled positions of the respondents by their presidential vote (Clinton and Dole) using positive BETA respondents only! Use arrows to show the locations of President Clinton and Senator Dole. (Use only positive BETA respondents for the rest of the questions below. Also use arrows to show the locations of President Clinton and Senator Dole in all the graphs below.) Turn in the graph and the R code you used to make your graph.

    4. Make smoothed histograms of the scaled positions by Race. Turn in the graph and the R code you used to make your graph.

    5. Make smoothed histograms of the scaled positions by Sex. Turn in the graph and the R code you used to make your graph.

    6. Make smoothed histograms of the scaled positions by Low and High Income. Pick a reasonable breakpoint -- for example, $35,000 and down versus $35,000 and up. Turn in the graph and the R code you used to make your graph. Also, write a short paragraph justifying your breakpoint!!!

  2. The aim of this problem is to analyze the 1996 thermometer scores using metric unfolding in the same fashion as question 3 of homework 7 and question 2 of homework 8. Download the program, control card file, and data file and place them in the same directory.

    Metric Unfolding Program (MLSMU6)

    Control Card File for Metric Unfolding Program (unfold.1996ctl -- rename to unfold.ctl!!!)

    1996 NES Data (Same as Problem 1 above)

    1. Run MLSMU6. It will produce an output file called FORT.22. The first 25 lines look like this:
       CLINTON         -0.7388    0.1273  163.9993    0.7506 1540.0000
       DOLE             0.8301    0.3728  134.2747    0.5949 1521.0000
       PEROT            0.1972   -1.1306  245.6263    0.2703 1496.0000
       GORE            -0.6888    0.3322  143.3021    0.5974 1480.0000
       KEMP             0.6632    0.4655   96.9593    0.5358 1297.0000
       HILLARY         -0.8665    0.1608  199.1098    0.6570 1524.0000
       BUCHANAN         0.7580   -0.7402  174.6813    0.3506 1386.0000
       JACKSON         -0.8705   -0.4622  257.3374    0.3382 1504.0000
       GINGRICH         1.1949   -0.0858  165.5293    0.5622 1373.0000
       POWELL           0.2317    0.4175  155.3202    0.2366 1415.0000
       FORBES           0.6697    0.6597  134.1059    0.1870 1157.0000
       GRAMM            1.0107   -0.0378  137.3536    0.3037  998.0000
       FARRAKHAN       -0.3684   -1.3468  210.7717    0.2807 1057.0000
       ALEXANDER        0.4608    0.8197   89.8681    0.1664  826.0000
       LIZDOLE          0.6073    0.4133  127.9372    0.5034 1413.0000
       ROBERTSON        0.7747   -0.7095  160.0973    0.3750 1170.0000
       DEMPARTY        -0.7380    0.1544  142.5958    0.6156 1527.0000
       REPUBPARTY       0.8112    0.3398  134.0655    0.5916 1522.0000
       PARTIES          0.0842    0.8601  211.9990    0.1288 1501.0000
       1001            -0.0133   -0.1806    3.6160    0.1348   19.0000
       1002            -0.2228    0.2068    1.5204    0.6861   19.0000
       1003            -0.1091   -0.1259    0.7092    0.3184   14.0000
       1004            -0.0985   -0.0059    1.0233    0.4076   15.0000
       1005             0.2494   -0.0768    0.8778    0.3932   19.0000
       1006            -0.0126   -0.1091    1.0874    0.4312   15.0000
                                etc etc etc
                                etc etc etc
      Use R to plot the 14 stimuli in two dimensions.

    2. Use Epsilon to insert the VOTE CHOICE variable into FORT.22 (strip off the candidate coordinates first). Then use R to make two-dimensional plots of the Voters and Non-Voters (in one plot), and Clinton Voters and Dole Voters (in one plot).

    3. Use R to make smoothed histograms -- using the first dimension from the thermometer scaling -- of the Voters and Non-Voters only, and the Clinton and Dole Voters only. Use arrows to show the locations of President Clinton and Senator Dole in both graphs. Do the positions of President Clinton and Senator Dole make sense? Why? Why Not? Limit your answer to no more than two paragraphs.

    4. We are now going to analyze all of the 1996 feeling thermometers including those for the social groups (!!) using metric unfolding. Download the control card file below:

      Control Card File for Metric Unfolding Program (unfold.1996ctlall -- rename to unfold.ctl!!!)

      Run MLSMU6. It will produce an output file called FORT.22. The first 50 lines of FORT.22 should look like this:
       CLINTON         -0.7617    0.0167  213.0920    0.6965 1544.0000
       DOLE             0.8725    0.3212  154.6721    0.5401 1521.0000
       PEROT            0.2068   -1.1813  273.8673    0.1851 1496.0000
       GORE            -0.7736    0.1087  174.2038    0.5157 1480.0000
       KEMP             0.7130    0.4111  112.2532    0.4619 1297.0000
       HILLARY         -0.8975   -0.0196  246.9346    0.5969 1525.0000
       BUCHANAN         0.8085   -0.7482  188.1940    0.2881 1386.0000
       JACKSON         -0.8584   -0.5566  287.9435    0.2534 1504.0000
       GINGRICH         1.2095   -0.0931  181.5659    0.5315 1373.0000
       POWELL           0.2502    0.4181  171.3844    0.1520 1415.0000
       FORBES           0.9675    0.1902  173.7938    0.1253 1157.0000
       GRAMM            0.9429   -0.4033  122.1787    0.2623  998.0000
       FARRAKHAN       -0.3453   -1.4133  260.0491    0.1228 1057.0000
       ALEXANDER        0.7597    0.5958  117.1315    0.0858  826.0000
       LIZDOLE          0.6442    0.3819  148.2997    0.4221 1413.0000
       ROBERTSON        0.8092   -0.7353  177.2322    0.3031 1170.0000
       DEMPARTY        -0.7705   -0.0026  170.0959    0.5533 1528.0000
       REPUBPARTY       0.8530    0.2909  153.7096    0.5382 1522.0000
       PARTIES          0.1958    0.8476  202.1998    0.1355 1503.0000
       CLINTON2        -0.7410    0.0548  173.3130    0.6795 1383.0000
       DOLE2            0.7955    0.4188  136.7675    0.4474 1377.0000
       PEROT2           0.2844   -1.0988  241.8871    0.1318 1367.0000
       SUPREMES         0.0236    0.6571  104.0556    0.2944 1353.0000
       CONGRESS         0.3073    0.7279  121.1777    0.2426 1363.0000
       MILITARY         0.2345    0.4562  154.3658    0.2396 1367.0000
       FEDGOVTDC       -0.5555    0.6514  166.3660    0.2452 1371.0000
       BLACKS          -0.0463    0.5683  128.7191    0.3000 1353.0000
       WHITES           0.0648    0.4484  126.4398    0.2431 1343.0000
       CONSERVATIVES    0.6573    0.3807  107.4009    0.4016 1338.0000
       LIBERALS        -0.8786    0.2090  108.8771    0.5036 1332.0000
       LABOR_UNIONS    -0.8645   -0.0824  220.5625    0.2083 1351.0000
       BIG_BIZ          0.4030    0.7168  141.4666    0.2268 1363.0000
       POOR_PPL         0.0102    0.4745  132.1431    0.2263 1351.0000
       WELFARE_PPL     -0.3401    0.8276  168.7679    0.1980 1342.0000
       HISPANICS       -0.0221    0.6226  132.9463    0.2674 1332.0000
       CHRISTIAN_F      0.6974   -0.5901  242.6430    0.1415 1258.0000
       WOMENS_MOV      -0.5458    0.3856  161.8983    0.3747 1356.0000
       OLD_PPL          0.0243    0.2455  121.3204    0.1872 1371.0000
       TREE_HUG        -0.4010    0.4900  145.0897    0.3047 1349.0000
       GAY_PPL         -0.7721    0.8228  288.4792    0.2511 1346.0000
       CHRISTIAN_COA    0.7268   -0.5563  224.7862    0.1731 1227.0000
       1001            -0.0385   -0.1809    5.5829    0.2851   41.0000
       1002            -0.1246    0.2321    3.1604    0.7269   40.0000
       1003            -0.1068   -0.2787    2.3699    0.1160   36.0000
       1004            -0.0867    0.0454    2.4918    0.5024   37.0000
       1005             0.2132   -0.1741    2.8389    0.0961   41.0000
       1006             0.0544   -0.1918    2.7069    0.4889   37.0000
       1007             0.5026   -0.0300    4.5429    0.6157   41.0000
       1008            -0.1038    0.0182    5.5897    0.2888   39.0000
       1009            -0.0404    0.0111    2.0810    0.4197   39.0000
                                etc etc etc
                                etc etc etc
      Use R to plot the 41 politicians, parties, institutions, and social groups in two dimensions. Interpret the two dimensions. What do you think they are and does the relative placement of the 41 stimuli make sense to you. Justify your answer.

  3. In this problem we are going to use the classic W-NOMINATE program to analyze the 104th House and Senates. Download the program, control card files, and data files and place them in the same directory.

    W-NOMINATE Program (WNOM9707.EXE)

    W-NOMINATE Control Card File for 104th House (NOMSTART.H104 -- rename to NOMSTART.DAT!!!)

    W-NOMINATE Control Card File for 104th Senate (NOMSTART.S104 -- rename to NOMSTART.DAT!!!)

    104th House roll call data

    104th Senate roll call data

    1. Run W-NOMINATE on the 104th House. Turn in the NOM21.DAT output file.

    2. The legislator coordinates are in the output file NOM31.DAT. The first few lines should look like this:
          11049990999 0USA     100  CLINTON       55  17   6  99  0.733 -0.587  0.065
          21041509041 1ALABAMA 20000CALLAHAN     563  58  15 503  0.853  0.729  0.043
          31042930041 2ALABAMA 20000EVERETT      571  70  21 502  0.825  0.746  0.041
          41041563241 3ALABAMA 10000BROWDER      459  89 120 462  0.664 -0.037  0.015
          51041100041 4ALABAMA 10000BEVILL       438 121 108 462  0.660 -0.081  0.015
          61042910041 5ALABAMA 10000CRAMER       470  97 116 480  0.662 -0.023  0.014
          71042930141 6ALABAMA 20000BACHUS       602  32  34 488  0.856  0.689  0.036
          81042930241 7ALABAMA 10000HILLIARD     457 121  34 504  0.726 -0.643  0.023
          91041406681 1ALASKA  20000YOUNG, DON   519  49  31 466  0.814  0.592  0.031
         101042950061 1ARIZONA 20000SALMON       615  37  45 468  0.840  0.816  0.045
                                  etc etc etc
                                  etc etc etc
      The legislator coordinates are in the next to the last column (shown in red). For example, former President Clinton's coordinate is -0.587. Use R to make a smoothed histogram of the Republicans and Democrats in the 104th House using the estimated coordinates above (the party code is shown in blue). Use arrows to show the locations of former President Clinton and former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich.

    3. Use Epsilon to change the number of dimensions to "2" in NOMSTART.DAT and run the program again (be sure to save NOM31.DAT from the one dimensional run as it will be overwritten). NOMSTART.DAT (NOMSTART.H104) looks like this:
      HOU104KP.ORD                Name of Data File
      NOMINAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL UNFOLDING   Title of Run
       1321    1    5             Number RCs, Left on 1st, Up on 2nd
          1   36                  Number Dimensions, Number Characters to Read From Header
       15.0000  0.5000            Starting Values for BETA and WEIGHT
        0.0250   20               RC Min. Cutoff, Number RCs for Legislator
      (36A1,3600I1)               Format for Roll Call File
      (1x,I4,36A1,1X,4i4,51f7.3)  Format for Legislator Coordinate File -- NOM31.DAT
      (1x,I4,36A1,1X,51f7.3)      Format for H-S Coordinate File -- FORT.34
      The red "1" in the fourth line is the number of dimensions. This is the number you should change to "2". Leave everything else in the file the same! Run W-NOMINATE on the 104th House in two dimensions. Turn in the NOM21.DAT output file.

    4. The two-dimensional coordinate file looks like this:
          11049990999 0USA     100  CLINTON       54  17   7  99  0.729 -0.594 -0.116  0.066  0.129
          21041509041 1ALABAMA 20000CALLAHAN     561  36  17 525  0.880  0.758  0.653  0.042  0.132
          31042930041 2ALABAMA 20000EVERETT      569  50  23 522  0.852  0.774  0.634  0.040  0.132
          41041563241 3ALABAMA 10000BROWDER      473  35 106 516  0.733 -0.034  0.842  0.015  0.083
          51041100041 4ALABAMA 10000BEVILL       448  57  98 526  0.723 -0.079  0.759  0.015  0.075
          61042910041 5ALABAMA 10000CRAMER       474  46 112 531  0.710 -0.018  0.688  0.015  0.064
          71042930141 6ALABAMA 20000BACHUS       597  25  39 495  0.861  0.695  0.232  0.035  0.078
          81042930241 7ALABAMA 10000HILLIARD     445 117  46 508  0.748 -0.642  0.417  0.023  0.046
          91041406681 1ALASKA  20000YOUNG, DON   517  34  33 481  0.839  0.600  0.583  0.031  0.122
         101042950061 1ARIZONA 20000SALMON       623  35  37 470  0.842  0.826 -0.119  0.045  0.075
                                  etc etc etc
                                  etc etc etc
      The legislator coordinates are are the third and fourth columns from the end (shown in red). For example, former President Clinton's coordinates are -0.594 and -0.116. Use R to plot the legislators in two dimensions. Use "D" for Non-Southern Democrats, "S" for Southern Democrats, "R" for Republicans, and "P" for President Clinton. This graph should be in the same format as the one you did for question 3.e of Homework 6 and question 3.b of Homework 8.

    5. Use R to make a smoothed histogram of the Republicans and Democrats in the 104th House using the estimated first dimension coordinates above. Use arrows to show the locations of former President Clinton and former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich.

    6. Run W-NOMINATE on the 104th Senate. Turn in the NOM21.DAT output file.

    7. Use R to make a smoothed histogram of the Republicans and Democrats in the 104th Senate using the estimated coordinates from the NOM31.DAT file. Use arrows to show the locations of former President Clinton, and Senators Kennedy and Helms.

    8. Use Epsilon to change the number of dimensions to "2" in NOMSTART.DAT and run the program again (be sure to save NOM31.DAT from the one dimensional run as it will be overwritten). Use R to plot the legislators in two dimensions. Use "D" for Non-Southern Democrats, "S" for Southern Democrats, "R" for Republicans, and "P" for President Clinton. This graph should be in the same format as the one you did for question 3.e of Homework 6 and question 3.b of Homework 8.

    9. Use R to make a smoothed histogram of the Republicans and Democrats in the 104th Senate using the estimated first dimension coordinates above. Use arrows to show the locations of former President Clinton and Senators Kennedy and Helms.

    10. Compare the plots in parts (b), (e), (g), and (i) with those you did for the mass public in parts 1(c) and 2(c) above. What is politically important about these plots? Be specific and limit yourself to no more than two paragraphs.

  4. In this problem we are going to use my Optimal Classification (OC) program to continue our analysis of the thermometer scores as roll call votes! Download the program, control card file, and data file and place them in the same directory.

    Optimal Classification Program (PERFL -- Updated, 12 April 2003)

    OC Control Card File for 1968 Election (PERFSTRT.1968NEW)

    OC Control Card File for 2000 Election (PERFSTRT.2000NEW)

    1968 Election Data (VOTE_THERM_1968.ORD -- Updated, 12 April 2003)

    2000 Election Data (VOTE_THERM_2000A.ORD -- Updated, 12 April 2003)

    1. Run PERFL on the 1968 data and turn in the PERF21.DAT file.

    2. The first 20 lines of PERF25.DAT for the 1968 data look like this:
       12 APRIL     2003  16.14.31.40.
          1     WALLACE                                 0   11   1.000   0.501   0.364  -0.049
          2     HUMPHREY                                0   11   1.000   0.501  -0.306   0.000
          3     NIXON                                   0   11   1.000   0.501   0.226   0.000
          4     MCCARTHY                                3   11   0.727   0.098   0.024   0.199
          5     REAGAN                                  1   11   0.909   0.501   0.178   0.127
          6     ROCKEFELLER                             1   11   0.909   0.501   0.082   0.258
          7     LBJ                                     1   11   0.909   0.501  -0.037  -0.474
          8     ROMNEY                                  2   11   0.818   0.304  -0.114   0.689
          9     R.KENNEDY                               0   11   1.000   0.501  -0.173   0.000
         10     MUSKIE                                  2   11   0.818   0.038  -0.231   0.249
         11     AGNEW                                   2   11   0.818   0.111   0.091   0.007
         12     LEMAY                                   1   11   0.909   0.501   0.144  -0.403
         13         1  6 14  0  0  0  3 28  0  1  2     7  110   0.936   0.010   0.078   0.275
         14         2  1 15  0  0  0  3 25  0  1  1     6  120   0.950   0.223  -0.499   0.599
         15         4  3 13  0  0  1  1 25  1  5  0    32  108   0.704   0.110   0.078   0.180
         16         5  5 21  0  0  1  1 42  1  5  0     6   84   0.929   0.202   0.431   0.681
         17         7  1 10  0  1  1  1 83  0  1  3    16   98   0.837   0.058   0.077  -0.293
         18         8  4 20  0  1  1  1 54  1  5  0     0   60   1.000   0.231  -0.037  -0.420
         19         9  4 13  0  1  0  1 69  1  1  2    21  112   0.812   0.012   0.068  -0.069
         20        10  0 20  0  0  1  1 55  1  1  1    16  118   0.864   0.022  -0.236   0.231
                                   etc etc etc
                                   etc etc etc
      In this version of the data the 12 Candidates are allowed to vote for themselves but otherwise abstain!!! Hence, they can be treated like they were responents (albeit with much missing data). The last two columns are the coordinates. Note that the regular respondents begin at row 13. The variables embedded in the header for the respondents are exactly the same as those listed in question 2 of homework 9. Do not forget to use Epsilon to delete the last 132 rows of PERF25.DAT -- these are the roll call cutting lines.

      Use R to make a two-dimensional plot of the 1968 coordinates showing both the 12 politicians and the voters. Compare this plot to the one you made for question 1.a of homework 9. Which plot makes the most sense? Limit your answer to no more than two paragraphs.

    3. Run PERFL on the 2000 data and turn in the PERF21.DAT file.

    4. The first 20 lines of PERF25.DAT for the 2000 data look like this:
       13 APRIL     2003  14.25.28.75.
          1     CLINTON                                 0   13   1.000   0.501  -0.179   0.000
          2     GORE                                    0   13   1.000   0.501  -0.118   0.293
          3     BUSH                                    0   13   1.000   0.501   0.026  -0.139
          4     BUCHANAN                                3   13   0.769   0.501   0.318  -0.456
          5     NADER                                   1   13   0.923   0.188  -0.297   0.781
          6     MCCAIN                                  0   13   1.000   0.501  -0.005   0.000
          7     BRADLEY                                 1   13   0.923   0.177   0.095   0.338
          8     LIEBERMAN                               1   13   0.923   0.140  -0.169   0.439
          9     CHENEY                                  1   13   0.923   0.501   0.178   0.053
         10     HILLARY CLINTON                         0   13   1.000   0.501  -0.191  -0.031
         11     DEM PARTY                               0   13   1.000   0.115  -0.132   0.000
         12     REP PARTY                               1   13   0.923   0.501   0.036  -0.208
         13     REFORM PARTY                            5   13   0.615   0.501   0.428  -0.118
         14     ALL PARTIES                             4   13   0.692   0.236   0.219  -0.132
         15     10787  4  8  0  0  0  2 49  1  1  2    24  128   0.812   0.007   0.201  -0.055
         16     21271  2  6  0  1  0  2 35  1  5  0    26   82   0.683   0.054  -0.096   0.004
         17     40285  2  6  0  0  0  2 63  0  1  1    39  154   0.747   0.151  -0.619  -0.586
         18     50191  6  6  0  1  0  2 40  1  1  2    14  164   0.915   0.447   0.540   0.129
         19     70894  5 12  0  0  0  2 43  1  5  0    18  156   0.885   0.016   0.191   0.005
         20     80889  0  7  0  1  0  3 47  1  1  1    22  170   0.871   0.004  -0.365   0.319
                                      etc etc etc
                                      etc etc etc
      The variables embedded in the header for the respondents are exactly the same as those listed in question 2 of homework 9. Do not forget to use Epsilon to delete the last 182 rows of PERF25.DAT -- these are the roll call cutting lines.

      Use R to make a two-dimensional plot of the 2000 coordinates showing both the 14 politicians/parties and the voters. Compare this plot to the one you made for question 1.b of homework 9. Which plot makes the most sense? Limit your answer to no more than two paragraphs.

    5. Make smoothed histograms of the Gore and Bush voters on the first dimension. Use arrows to show the locations of Former Vice-President Gore and President Bush.